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Category Archive for 'unit 4:'

Production systems respond to demand (positively) by internal (local) consumers and buyers, and by external buyers. Production systems that are responsive to local as well as external demand are likely to be economically sustainable, while also contributing to local well-being. This criterion tracks the orientation of a landscape toward supplying goods and services for local [...]

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Criterion I4: Market access

Producers need access to markets for products and services that return a profit as well as incentives to invest in sustaining ecosystem function and livelihood security. Consider certification schemes for agricultural products, as illustrated in the box below.
BOX HERE.
Consider also, markets for ecosystem services. Further ideas about how to [...]

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Criterion P5: Agrobiodiversity

Agrobiodiversity comprises all of the components of biological diversity relevant to food and agriculture present in agro-ecosystems, including microbes, insect pollinators, and the hedgerows that support soil stability and provide a home to wildlife. It holds the key to enhancing food security and improving human well-being (CGIAR Systems Wide Genetic Resources Program).
Theoretically, assessing agrobiodiversity (agricultural [...]

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Natural resources include soil, forests, grasslands, fisheries and water.  Equity is concerned with tenure and use rights according to factors such as gender, ethnicity and class.  Access is concerned with physical availability (presence and proximity), use rights (customary or legal) and sometimes ‘effective demand’ (capacity to pay).
As with Criteria L1 and L2, a good way to limit [...]

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Assets include infrastructure (buildings, roads, bridges), common property, renewable and non-renewable natural resources, human and social capital, and cultural knowledge. These assets allows households and communities to manage risks to life, health and well being.
To assess whether the value of household and community assets is increasing or decreasing over time involves assessing the abundance [...]

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This criterion is concerned with the impacts of agricultural practices on ecosystem service and biodiversity outcomes. To evaluate it therefore requires an examination of relationships between characteristics of the agricultural systems in the area, and environmental health. Thus, appropriate production and conservation indicators need to be identified and measured.
In the table below, potential indicators of [...]

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External shocks include flooding, drought, changing commodity prices, disease epidemics, and political conflict.  Household and community resilience to these means having the social, institutional and technical capacity to pick up the pieces and adapt their livelihood strategies after a collamatous event.
Both social and ecological resilience are important to overcoming and adapting to climate-induced shocks. Social capital [...]

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This criterion is concerned with both human and non-human population dynamics. They include human immigration and emigration, demographic changes in local populations, and the spread of domestic and invasive plant and animal species. The criterion asks whether communities have the capacity to rebound from potentially disruptive changes in these arenas, that is, are they [...]

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Criterion P3: Resilient to disturbance

Production systems maintain the natural capital that sustains production over time and makes them resilient. Disturbances may include drought, flood, mudslides, disease, human migration and climate change.
Criterion P3: Production systems are are resilient to natural and anthropogenic disturbances.

Indicator
Measurement Unit
Means of Measure

Yield
Changes in pre- post- disturbance yield (kg/ha)
Crop productivity

Land use/ cover

Area (ha) under monoculture
Area (ha) [...]

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For people to meet their basic needs for food, water, energy, shelter, and cash as well as health and education on a sustainable basis, several sets of conditions must be met.

First, natural resources must be present and available; stocks and flows must be sufficient to meet the need.
Second, those who need the resources must be able to [...]

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